All about the SAT Essay
The 2016 SAT includes an essay section that has been significantly redesigned. Students are no longer required to complete the essay, but many universities mandate the submission of essay scores, and the College Board recommends that all students take this section of the SAT in order to demonstrate reading, writing, and analysis skills. The time given for the essay has been doubled to 50 minutes, and the essay task is now focused on analysis of an argument rather than taking a position on an issue. Students write a single essay based on a prompt that is largely consistent across all administrations of the SAT.
The College Board cites the need to separate essay writing from other verbal skills and institutional desire for more specific essay scoring criteria as the major reasons for the SAT essay redesign, but popular criticism was certainly also a factor. Opponents of the old SAT essay saw the assessment as a poor and somewhat arbitrary predictor of college success. These criticisms were to some degree supported by independent research. One study, for example, found a strong correlation between essay length and score.
The essay prompt for the 2016 SAT asks students to analyze a text that is between 650 and 750 words in length. All essay reading passages are argumentative, intended for general readerships, and taken from historical or contemporary sources. Student essays must consider author use of evidence to support claims, reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims, and stylistic and persuasive elements such as word choice or appeals to emotion. In their essays, students should analyze the argument advanced in the reading passage rather than write about their own views on the subject. The consistent nature of the essay prompt means that test-takers will know the basic essay task in advance, although they will not know the particular reading passage ahead of time. This change can be seen as an attempt to more closely align the SAT essay with the types of essays that are written on college exams.
The 2016 SAT essay is scored separately from the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math sections. Three scores are given: Reading, Analysis, and Writing. Each of these will be on a scale of 2-8. Two scorers read each essay independently and provide a score of 1 to 4 in each area. A score of 4 is considered "Advanced," while 1 is "Inadequate." Evaluation criteria include comprehension of essay reading passages, analysis and explanation of argument, and effectiveness of essay writing.
Student preparation should emphasize analytical skills with respect to written texts in a broad range of general-interest publications. An experienced SAT tutor can provide relevant reading lists, understanding of how the SAT essay is scored, differentiated instruction in terms of essay-writing skill development, and assessment of progress. Informed sources generally agree that private SAT preparation is superior to self-study methods or pre-recorded video instruction due to the presence of a live teacher.
The SAT Essay is meant to combine with the Writing and Language Test to provide a broad assessment of writing skills. College Board goals that are relevant to the SAT Essay include "an emphasis on source analysis and use of evidence," "attention to a core set of important English language conventions and to effective written expression," and "text complexity aligned to college and career readiness levels of reading." Research has shown that college texts are much more difficult than most of the materials that students encounter in high school. A 2009 study demonstrated a steady and lengthy decline in the complexity of texts used at the secondary level, and College Board data on SAT scores verify that too few students are graduating from high school with the verbal skills required by college courses. According to College Board surveys, postsecondary instructors consider textual analysis to be one of the most essential of college-level skills. Studies also indicate that writing abilities cannot be acquired through direct instruction alone; opportunities for regular practice must be included. The new SAT Essay aims to address these issues and improve on older writing assessments that many educators saw as arbitrary in terms of evaluation criteria and less than ideal with respect to pedagogical or predictive value.